Sarcopenia: how to evaluate ?
The diagnosis of sarcopenia based on an assessment of:
• Muscle mass
• Muscle strength
• Physical performance
Screening algorithm proposed by the EWGSOP
The European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP) established a diagnosis method of sarcopenia including the three parameters of its definition: muscle mass, muscle strength and physical performance, in order to provide a useful tool in clinical practice and routine1.
1. Cruz-Jentoft AJ, Baeyens JP, Bauer JM, Boirie Y, Cederholm T, Landi F, et al. Sarcopenia: European Consensus on Definition and Diagnosis Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People. Age Ageing. 7 janv 2010;39(4):412‑423.
Le SPPB (Short Physical Performance Battery)
All these tests used to assess the balance, walking, strength and endurance by examining the capacity to stand with feet side by side, semi tandem and tandem, to perform a walk on 4 meters and get up and sit 5 times in a row (3). Each test provides a performance score. The total points provides an overall performance score. A score below 8 is a risk indicator of sarcopenia (4).
• SPPB 0-6 : Poor performance
• SPPB 7-9 : Intermediate performance
• SPPB 10-12 : High Performance
3. Guralnik JM, Seeman TE, Tinetti ME, Nevitt MC, Berkman LF. « Validation and use of performance measures of functioning in a non-disabled older population: MacArthur studies of successful aging » Aging (Milano) 1994 déc;6(6):410-9.
4. Guralnik JM, Ferrucci L, Pieper CF, Leveille SG, Markides KS, Ostir GV, et al. « Lower extremity function and subsequent disability: consistency across studies, predictive models, and value of gait speed alone compared with the short physical performance battery » J. Gerontol. A Biol. Sci. Med. Sci. 2000 avr;55(4):M221-231.
What to do against sarcopenia
Treatment of sarcopenia comprises a recovery of mass, strength and muscle function by a nutritional intervention and a regular and adapted physical activity.
ProteoCIT for the dietary management of sarcopenia or malnutrition, especially among frail elderly.